Seismologists are studying ways to predict the occurrence of earthquakes…. One possibility … is to monitor subterranean fluid pressures.… Fluctuations in the production rates of oil, gas and water wells are often associated with earthquakes and sometimes precede them soon enough to provide some warning.
It’s still not possible to predict when or where earthquakes will strike. But hazard models can estimate the likelihood that a quake will rock an area within a given time frame. Scientists now know that wastewater injection can trigger earthquakes, and account for those underground fluids in hazard models.
When a quake does hit, modern early warning systems can help people brace for shaking. Those systems use readouts from seismic sensors to gauge when surrounding areas will start to tremble, offering seconds to minutes of advance notice. The first public system in the United States started sending alerts to Californians in 2019. A rollout to other quake-prone states has been delayed due to the coronavirus pandemic.